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4 things are the Gift of MULTAN - Dust, Heat, Beggers, Grave Yards
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 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE CITY DISTRICT (CD)
 

Lying between 30.2°N and 71.45°E, Multan CD is located in a bend created by five confluent rivers at an altitude of 215m (740 feet) abvoe sea level. The Sutlej separates it from Bahawalpur District and the Chenab from Muzaffar Garh District. District Multan is spread over an area of 3,721 square Kilometers comprising of following four tehsils. District Multan is surrounded by the District of Khanewal on the North and North East, Vehari District on East and District of Lodhran on the south. The River Chenab passes on its western side and across which lies the District of Muzaffargarh. City District of Multan is spread over an area of 3,721 km² and have population of Five million . Administratively City District  of Multan is divided into following six towns:

1. Bosan Town
2. Shah Rukne Alam Town
3. Mumtazabad Town
4. Sher Shah Town
5. Shujaabad Town
6. Jalapur Pirwala Town
 
Multan is linked with other parts of the country by road, rail and air routes. N-5 passes though Multan linking it almost to the entire country while the main Peshawar-Karachi rail road passes through Multan District.

 CLIMATE AND GENERAL SOIL CONDITIONS
 

District of Multan has an extreme climate. The extreme temperature of Multan in summer is 50°C (122°F) and in winter it becomes as low as 1°C (33.8°F) . The average rainfall is 127 mm. The land of the District is plain and very fertile. However, the portions close to the River Chenab are flooded during monsoons season.


 AGRICULTURE
 

Main crops and fruits of the District of Multan are wheat, cotton, sugarcane, mangoes and citrus. The average annual production of wheat, sugarcane, mangoes and citrus during the period 1998-2001 was 454, 178, 88 and 50 thousand metric tons respectively and of cotton was 559 thousand bales. A variety of vegetables is also grown in the district.


 LIVESTOCK
 

According to the Punjab Development Statistics of 2000, the population of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goat was 340, 379, 99 and 471 thousand heads respectively. As regards poultry, there are 518 broiler, 37 layer and 8 breeding poultry farms having rearing capacity of 7515, 178 and 103 thousand birds respectively. The annual availability of hides and skins is estimated at 103 thousand pieces. There are 40 tanning units of various sizes already operating in the district. In view of the above, there exists good prospect for milk processing/dairy products units, ice cream, animal/poultry feed, dairy farms, cattle/sheep/goat fattening farms, meat/poultry processing unit, leather garments, leather footwear, etc.


 MINING
 

District of Multan is quite rich in mines. Argillaceous clay, coal, dolomite, fire clay, gypsum, limestone, silica sand and rock salt are excavated in commercial qualities. There is one cement factory operating in the district. However, there exists good scope for dolomite processing, fire bricks/refractories, hollow glass-ware, insulators/capacitors and ceramics sanitary-ware. A careful study may also reflect a potential for a coal based power generation unit, a soda ash unit based on rock salt and a steel mill based on iron-ore.


 INDUSTRIES
 

In the District of Multan a variety of industrial units are operating including cotton / woollen textile, fruit juice / beverage, fertilizer and chemical, glass, pharmaceutical, vegetable ghee, tannery units and various types of engineering goods industries, etc. There is 1 biscuit, 20 cotton textile spinning units, 42 flour mills, 3 fruit juice, 9 solvent oil extraction units, 20 dal mills, 13 vegetable ghee units and a number of cotton ginning/pressing and oil mills already operating in district Multan. In view of the availability of raw materials and existing agro-based industries, there still exists wide scope for value added textile products , glucose/starch , fruit concentrates and basic manufacturing of pesticides.


 IMPORTANT PLACES

 Multan Fort
The Multan Fort was built on a detached rather high mound of earth separated from the City by the bed of an old branch of the River Ravi. There is no fort exixts as of now, which was then destroyed by the British Garrison has been stationed there for a long time but the entire site is known as the "fort". The fort site now is a part of the old city and the river it is now replaced by a road which looks more like a bazar and remains crowded throughout the day. Nobody knows when Multan Fort came into being but it was there and it was admired and desired by kings and emperors throughout centuries. It was considered as one of the best forts of the sub-continent from the defence as well as architectural points of view. When it was intact its circuit was 6,800 feet or, say, about one and a half mile. It had 46 bastions including two flanking towers at each of the four gates named as the De, the Sikki, the Hareri and the Khizri Gate.   Multan Fort

The Khizri Gate was called so because it led directly to the river which was considered to be under the protection of the saint Khawaja Khizer. Description of the Multan Fort as recorded by John Duntop, who visited the city and the fort on the eve of the British occupation in 1849 is reproduced below:

"The Fort stands on the highest part of the mound on which the town is built it is an anciente formed by a hexagonal wall from forty to seventy feet high, the longest side of which faces the north-west and extends for 600 yards, and which isolates it from the town. A ditch twenty-five feet deep and forty feet wide is on the fort side of the wall, behind which is a glacis exhibiting a face of some eighteen feet high, and so thick as to present an almost impregnable rocky mound. Within the fort, and on a very considerable elevation, stands the citadel, in itself of very great strength. The walls are flanked by thirty towers, and enclose numerous houses, mosques, a Hindu temple of high antiquity, and a Khan's palace, the beauty of which was severely damaged by the battering it got from the guns of Ranjeet Singh in 1818. This fortification is said to be more regular in construction than any other laid down by native engineers. Mr Vans Agnew - the unfortunate political agent - whose murder with that of his companion Lieutenant Anderson, gave rise to the recent hostilities to the British Resident at Lahore, that he had seen many forts in India, but one that could compare with Mooltan the ramparts of which bristled with eighty pieces of ordnance".

A correspondent of Bombay Times, who also visited the Multan Fort around the same time recorded:

"The Fortress was filled with stores to profusion. I think Mooltan is the beauideal of a Buneca's Fort, or rather fortified shop: Never perhaps in India have such depots existed of merchandise and arms, amalgamated as they with avarice. Here opium, indigo, salt, sulphur, and every known drug, are heaped in endless profusion-there apparently ancient in the bowels of the earth disclose their huge hoards of wheat and rice; here stacks of leathern ghee vessels, brimming with the grease, fill the pucka receptacles below ground. The silk and shawls reveal in darkness, bales rise on bales, here some mamoth chest discovering glittering scabbards of gold and gems-there reveals tiers of copper cansters crammed with gold Mohurs: My pen cannot describe the variety of wealth displayed to the inquisitive eyes".

Once this was the position of the Multan Fort but during the British occupation everything was lost and finished forever. With the passage of time the British stronghold over India grew stronger and stronger, and the importance of Multan was lost gradually. The Multan Fort and other important historical places deteriorated slowly and sadly turned into ruins.


 Mausoleum of Bahauddin Zakariya
 
Today the prime attraction of the fort area is the Mausoleum of Sheikh Bahauddin Zakariya (the ornament of the faith) generally known as Bahawal Haq. The lofty domes of these Mausoleums are visible, from miles and dominate the skyline of Multan. Bahawal Haq as a saint is respected throughout the country particularly in Southern Punjab and Sind.
 
Sheikh Bahauddin Zakariya known as Bahawal Haq, was born at Kot Kehror - a town of District Laiah near Multan - around 1170 AD. His father died when he was a child, but he grew in wisdom and studied in Turan and Iran. He received religious instructions from Sheikh Shahabuddin Suhrawardy in Baghdad and became his Khalifa. He was on terms of great friendship with Sheikh Farid Shakar Ganj and lived with him for a long time.
  Tomb of Shah Rukene Alam

Bahawal Haq was a pious man and for many years he was the great saint of Multan. For fifteen years he preached for the glory of Islam and his fame as a teacher and a pious man spread far and wide. After performing Haj he visited Jerusalem, Syria, Baghdad and many other Muslim Countries. After his wanderings Bahawal Haq settled in Multan in 1222 AD and very soon his sanctity, piety and learning spread throughout the country and the number of his followers swell to thousands. This great man, however, passed away from this world during 1267 AD. The Mausoleum, where he lies in eternal peace, is said to have been built by the saint himself and according to Cunningham there is only one other specimen of the architecture of this exact period and, that is, at Sonepat in India.

The Mausoleum is a square of 51 feet 9 inches, measured internally. Above this is an octagon, about half the height of the square, which is surmounted by a hemispherical dome. The Mausoleum was almost completely ruined during the siege of 1848, but was soon afterwards restored by the Muslims. The Mausoleum contains besides the tomb of the saint and many of his descendants, including his son Sadruddin. According to tradition, Bahawal Haq left enormous wealth, but Sadruddin distributed the whole of it to the poor. Opposite the door of the mausoleum there is a small grave of Nawab Muzaffar Khan who died defending himself against the Sikhs.


 Mausoleum of Shah Rukne Alam
 
The Mausoleum of Rukne Alam is the glory of Multan. When the city is approached from any side, the most prominent thing which can be seen from miles all around is a huge dome. This dome is the Shrine of Sheikh Ruknuddin Abual Fath commonly known by the title Rukne Aam (pillar of the world). The tomb is located on the south-west side of the fort premises. In beauty and grandeur so other dome perhaps equals it. This elegant building is an octagon, 51 feet 9 inches in diameter internally, with walls 41 feet 4 inches high and 13 feet 3 inches thick, supported at the angles by sloping towers. Over this is a smaller octagon 25 feet 8 inches, on the exterior side, and 26 feet 10 inches high, leaving a narrow passage all round the top of the lower storey for the Moazzan, or public caller to prayers.   Tomb of Bahauddin Zakariya

The whole is surmounted by hemishperical dome of 58 feet external diameter. The total height of the building, including a plinth of 3 feet, is 100 feet. As it stands on the high ground, the total height above the road level is 150 feet. This contributes materially to the majestic and colossal appearance of the tomb, making it the most prominent object of view to the visitors. Besides its religious importance, the mausoleum is also of considerable archaeological value as its dome is reputed to be the second largest in the world after 'Gol Gumbad' of Bijapur (India), which is the largest.

The Mausoleum is built entirely of red brick, bounded with beams of Shisham wood, which have now turned black after so many centuries. The whole of the exterior is elaborately ornamented with glazed tile panels, string courses and battlements. Colours used are dark blue, azure and white, but these are contrasted with the deep red of the finely polished bricks, while the result is both effective and pleasing. These mosaics are not like those of later day's plane surfaces, but the patterns are raised from half an inch to two inches above the background. This mode of construction must have been very difficult but its increased effect is undeniable, as it unites all the beauty and variety of colours with the light and shade of a raised pattern.

The grave of Rukne Alam is of plain brick work covered with plaster. The tomb was said to have been built by Ghiasuddin Tughlak for himself, but was given up by his son Muhammad Tughlak in favour of Rukne Aiam, when he passed away from this world during 1330 AD at the age of 88. It is generally believed that Shah Rukne Alam was not equal in piety and sanctity to his illustrious grandfather Bahawal Haq, but there is no doubt that he was one of the most accomplished men of his age. He taught his disciples a modified form of metempsychosis, and discoursed with the people on metaphysical subjects.


 Other Tombs
 

In addition, there are many others mausoleums located all around Multan within a radius of 30 to 40 miles. That's why Multan is called "THE CITY OF THE SAINTS". There was a time when scores of legends were spun around the life of the saints buried in all these tombs but with the passage of time the number of legends have also decreased though there are people who have lot of respect for most of these mausoleums and the saints.

The Mausoleum of Shamsuddin, commonly known as Shah Shams Tabrez is located about half a mile to the east of the Fort site, on the high bank of the old bed of River Ravi. He passed away in 1276 AD and the shrine was built by his grandson in 1330 AD. It was rebuilt by one of his followers in 1718 AD. The Tomb is square, 30 feet in height surmounted by a hemispherical dome. It is decorated with ornamental glazed tiles. 

Shrine of Muhammad Yusaf Gardezi commonly known as Shah Gardez just inside the Bohar Gate.  It is a rectangular domeless building decorated with glazed tiles, a work of considerable beauty. He came to Multan around 1088 AD and settled here for good. He is reputed to have been a gifted man of great learning.

The Mausoleum of Moosa Pak Shaheed is inside the Pak Gate. Sheikh Abul Hassab Musa Pak Shaheed was a descendant of Abdul Qadir Gillani and was born in Uch. The Shrine of Musa Pak Shaheed is also frequented by a large number of Pathans from all parts of Pakistan.

The Mausoleum of Bibi Pak Daman is located near Basti Daira, Hazrat Sher Shah Syed on Multan Mazzaffarghar Road and Hazrat Makhdoom Abdul Rashid Haqqani at Makhdoom Rashid.

Besides all these, there are also the following shrines which can be seen at Multan.

¤ Shrine Hameed-ud-Din Hakim
¤ Shrine Qutab-al-qutaab "Moj Dariya"
¤ Shrine Syed Pir Sakhi Shah Hassan Parwana
¤ Shrine Qazi Qutab-ud-Din Kashani
¤ Shrine Syed Hasan Khanjzee
¤ Shrine Hazrat Shah Dana Shaheed
¤ Shrine Abu Hassan Hafiz Jamal-ud-din "Musa Pak Shaheed"
¤ Shrine Hazrat Shah Kamal Qadari
¤ Shrine Hafiz Muhammad Jamal Chisti Nazami
¤ Shrine Pir Chup Wardi Waly
¤ Shrine Mollana Hamid Ali Khan Naqshbandi
¤ Shrine Allama Syed Ahmad Saeed Kazmi
¤ Shrine Hazrat Khawaja Awais Khagga
¤ Shrine Pir Syed Wali Muhammad Shah(Chadar Wali Sarkar)
¤ Shrine Hazrat Gul Shah
 

The information on this web is subject to change by the rules and policy decision of the governing body or authorised agency of MDA and any inadvertent error or omission shall not be questionable in any court of law.